Colorectal Cancer

The second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, only behind lung cancer, is none other than colorectal cancer. Although preventable, colorectal cancer claimed an estimated 52,890 lives in 2021 alone. In the same year, it is estimated that 149,500 individuals were newly diagnosed with this cancer.  

How does cancer start?

What is Colorectal Cancer? 

Colorectal cancer, unsurprisingly, is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine, also known as the colon. Like any cancer, colorectal cancer begins when a cell with damaged DNA begins to duplicate at a rapid rate due to the damage. These cells continue to divide unchecked, and eventually form a tumor. If left untreated, these cells will continue to grow into surrounding tissues, damaging them. These cells also can metastasize, or travel to other parts of the body and begin growing there.  

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms include, but are not limited to: 

  • Persistent bowel habit disruption, including prolonged diarrhea or constipation as well as a consistent change in the consistency of your stool 
  • Rectal bleeding, blood in the stool 
  • Persistent abdominal discomfort 
  • Feeling a consistent need to defecate 
  • Physical weakness or fatigue 
  • Unexplainable weight loss 
  • Loss of appetite

Who is Impacted? 

In a short sense, anyone can develop colorectal cancer.  

Colorectal cancer diagnoses are seen more commonly in men, as well as in African Americans. Tending to affect older groups, the median age of diagnoses is 67 years, with 78% of diagnoses being given to those that are 55 and older.  

This does not mean that if these demographics do not apply to you that you are in the clear. According to the Colon Cancer Coalition, about 20% of those diagnosed with colorectal cancer are between the ages of 20 to 54. It is imperative that all individuals, regardless of your demographic, plan for your routine colorectal cancer screening every five to ten years, depending on your doctor’s recommendation.  

Doctors recommend that individuals aged 45 and up should report for routine colorectal cancer screenings. While it is important that everyone receive their colorectal screenings on time to allow for an early diagnoses, older men and members of the African American community are, by statistics, more susceptible to developing colorectal cancer, since these groups are showing higher rates of incidence.  

Research is currently being conducted to understand the racial disparity in early-onset colorectal cancer. Andreana Holowatyi, PhD, MS, is exploring somatic mutations among patients of different racial groups to better understand why these groups are more susceptible to developing colorectal cancer. You can read more about her study on the website of the American Association for Cancer Research. 

Risk Factors

You can reduce your risk by implementing lifestyle changes in your everyday life. Not only do these tips reduce your risk of colorectal cancer, but they also improve your health overall.  

The first risk factor to consider is your age. Those of you over the age of 50 are at the highest risk for developing colorectal cancer, so you should be discussing with your doctor your plan to complete your routine screenings.

Drinking alcohol can also have an adverse effect on the body and the digestive system. This is not to say that you cannot drink alcohol but indulge in moderation to balance having fun with your physical health. Doctors recommend that women should have no more than one drink a day, and men two.  

Smoking kills. You know this when you start smoking and you accept the risks or choose to ignore them. Colorectal cancer follows only behind lung cancer, as previously mentioned, so eliminating this habit from your life decreases your likelihood of developing both diseases. Talk to your doctor today about methods of quitting that would work best for you. We know quitting is not easy, but it is in your best interest that we urge you to quit this habit.  

Exercising is another way to mitigate your risk of developing colorectal cancer. Doctors recommend individuals should exercise 30 minutes a day. This could be a brisk walk outside, a powerlift at the gym, a short yoga session in your living room, or whatever else you desire that gets you up and moving. Exercising does not have to be an activity to dread. In fact, exercise releases hormones, such as endorphins, adrenaline, dopamine, and more, that are associated with the feeling of happiness.  

Eating well is important. You have heard this since you were in school, I am sure, that you need to eat a well-rounded diet. Including a variety of fruits, veggies, and whole grains in your diet improves your health as well as your gut health. The more processed foods that you ingest without eating a variety of fruits and vegetables decrease the vitamins and nutrients that your body receives. Full of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants, these foods play a role in your health and in turn, cancer prevention. 

Maintaining a healthy weight is important to mitigate adverse health effects, and to reduce your risk of developing colon cancer. Exercise can help with this, as can eating well. This applies for both underweight and overweight individuals – aim to achieve a healthy weight and a healthy BMI (Body Mass Index) to keep your body in the best state you can.  

Personal health is a huge factor when considering any disease, and colorectal cancer is not an exception. If you have a history of inflammatory intestinal conditions, like IBS, or if you have a family history of colon or rectal cancer, you are at an increased risk of developing this cancer. Discuss these details with your doctor so that you can both be aware of your risk. Talk to your doctor about your physical health and ask them any questions you have about these topics and their role in colorectal cancer prevention.  

These tips are all personal. Each of them you must choose to implement, and you must choose to commit to. This is not something you do for others; improving your personal health is a task you must do for yourself alone. If you find that you are lacking in one or more of these points, that does not mean you are doomed. Begin to implement them slowly and incorporate them into your life over time. If it is best for you, choose one to implement and stick to it. After mastering one, select another to add to your routine.  


You might be thinking, what is a screening, and how can it help? The goal of a screening is to detect cancer early, so that it can be taken care of early. The later cancer is detected, the more likely it has developed into a stage that is more detrimental to your health.

Screenings mitigate the likelihood of you developing a late-stage cancer, because screenings are typically conducted before the patient has any symptoms of the disease.  Individuals that are showing symptoms of colorectal cancer should schedule a screening immediately.

Showing symptoms of colorectal cancer can be scary but scheduling a screening will allow the soonest possible diagnoses and the highest shot you have at survival, should the symptoms be caused by it.  There are options when it comes to screenings.

Stool based tests:

Fecal immunochemical test, or FIT test, is a test that examines stool for evidence of blood. The patient provides a stool sample, and a small sample is tested for blood. This is also referred to as an FOBT exam.

DNA stool tests are exactly what they sound like. This test checks the DNA of stool cells to determine if there is any damage to them through genetic changes.  

FIT Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening

Scope based tests:

Sigmoidoscopy uses a tool called a sigmoidoscope, which is a thin, lighted tube that is inserted into the body through the anus to allow the doctor to identify any abnormalities in the lower colon, such as polyps. If abnormalities are present, tissue samples will be collected to check for cancerous cells.  

A colonoscopy is like the previous, however, the colonoscope, which is another lighted tube, travels through the rectum into the colon and allows the doctor to examine the entire colon. Again, if abnormalities are identified, tissue samples will be removed for identification to determine if they are cancerous.  


Scans are used when cases of late-stage colorectal cancer is found. CT scans are used to create images of the inside of the body to determine if the cancer has spread elsewhere, or metastasized.

CT scan to determine if colorectal cancer has metastasized.

Other tests:

Virtual colonoscopies can be conducted, and they are less invasive, usually requiring no pain medication or anesthesia. These are conducted by acquiring x-rays of the patient using computed tomography, through which a computer generates a detailed image of the colon from the x-rays to identify any abnormalities within it.

Clinical trials are currently comparing this colonoscopy type with the others to determine its comparative effectiveness.  

Studies have shown that the digital rectal exam, typically conducted as part of a routine physical exam, are not effective as a screening method for cancer. This exam involves the doctor or nurse physically examining the inside of the rectum with a lubricated, gloved hand, to feel for any abnormalities. 

Deciding which test is best for you can be a difficult decision. It is best to speak with your doctor about the best method for you under their advisement. 

Screenings Save Lives!

Watch as Ryan Reynolds completes his first ever routine colonoscopy at age 45, which turns out to have been a potentially life-saving colonoscopy.